Competing interests, or conflicts of interest, arise when an author's affiliations or interests could potentially influence research outcomes or their interpretation. Authors should transparently disclose financial, non-financial, and intellectual relationships that may impact the study. These disclosures contribute to research credibility and reader evaluation.
Competing interests, also known as conflicts of interest, refer to situations in which an author's financial, personal, or professional relationships or interests could influence or be perceived to influence the research or the presentation of the findings. It is important for authors to disclose all potential competing interests in their manuscript, as this information can help readers evaluate the credibility and reliability of the research. Here are some common examples of things that may be included in a statement of competing interests:
Financial relationships, including direct employment, consultancies, honoraria, speaker fees, stock ownership or options, patents or patent applications, and funding from a for-profit organization
Non-financial relationships, including personal or political affiliations, academic competition, or personal beliefs that may affect the interpretation of the research
Intellectual property rights that may be affected by the publication of the research
Employment by, or advisory role for, a government agency that may be affected by the research
Past or present collaborations or relationships with other authors or researchers that may affect the research or its presentation
Other conflicts of interest that may affect the research or its presentation
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