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Reviews
Neuromodulatory effect of plant metabolites
By Dhunusmita Barman, Nikita Dey, Srijani Sen, Bibhuti B Kakoti, Catherine Vanlalhriatpuii

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Neurological disorders (NDDs) are diseases that affect the central and peripheral nervous systems. Gradual malfunction and destruction of the neurons or the nerve cells characterize them. Every year, NDDs affect millions of people worldwide. Over the years, several neuromodulatory techniques have been introduced to improve the quality of life for those affected by NDDs. NDDs are chronic and incurable conditions, however, bioactive substances derived from medicinal plants have emerged as the greatest choice for their prevention and treatment. Literature evidences several benefits of plant metabolites as alternative medicines for the prevention and treatment of NDDs. Numerous investigations have shown plant metabolites to possess beneficial biological effects because of their qualities, which include but are not limited to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective actions. Practices of folk medicine and several studies have also guided many phytopharmacological interventions toward the treatment of NDDs. This review aims to highlight secondary metabolites (alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids) of plants with neuroprotective action that could potentially play an important role in the prevention and management of NDDs.
Neurons; Neuromodulation; Neuroprotection; Neurodegeneration; Phytocompounds
Sciences of Phytochemistry
Vol 1, Issue 1
2022
Mini-reviews
Challenges and opportunities in the management of cardiovascular diseases
By Himangshu Sarma, Jon Jyoti Sahariah, Hemanta Kumar Sharma, Rajlakshmi Devi

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In the 21st century, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) constitute the leading cause of death. It is difficult for potential CVD therapies to be successful since CVDs cannot be effectively or cheaply treated with existing therapy. To formulate and transport therapeutically active molecules to treat a variety of ailments, innovative drug delivery carrier systems have emerged as an efficient method. Their applications have a potential role in routine drug discovery. Heart failure has been studied using a variety of novel treatment approaches, such as cell transplantation, gene transfer or therapy, cytokines, or other small molecules. This review briefly highlights key points in the management of CVDs.
Cardiovascular diseases; Drug discovery; Hypertension; Drug delivery; In-silico
Sciences of Phytochemistry
Vol 1, Issue 1
2022
Original article
Computational studies of Bridelia retusa phytochemicals for the identification of promising molecules with inhibitory potential against the spike protein and papain-like protease of SARS-CoV-2
By Lima Patowary, Malita Sarma Borthakur

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SARS-CoV-2 is the pathogen responsible for the on-going COVID-19 pandemic. The two proteins namely, spike protein and papain-like protease are mainly responsible for the penetration and transmission of the virus, respectively. The objective of our study was to find the most promising phytoconstituents of Bridelia retusa that can inhibit both the proteins. Molecular docking, protein-ligand interactions, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation techniques were used in the study. Bepridil and the co-crystal inhibitors of each protein were used as the standards. All the 14 phytoconstituents along with the standard drug and the co-crystal inhibitor of each protein were subjected to molecular docking. Ten compounds showed better binding affinities than the standards against the spike protein and 7 compounds have shown better binding affinities than the standards against papain-like protease protein. From the protein-ligand interactions, a total of 3 out of 10 for the spike protein and 5 out of 7 for the papain-like protease showed better interactions than the standards. An all-atom MD simulations study revealed that (R)4-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-4-hexenyl)-benzoic acid formed the most stable complex with both proteins. The in-silico study provides an evidence for (R)4-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-4-hexenyl)-benzoic acid as a promising inhibitor of the spike and papain-like protease of SARS-CoV-2. Further investigations such as in-vitro/in-vivo studies are recommended to validate the potency of (R)4-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-4-hexenyl)-benzoic acid.
SARS-CoV-2, Spike protein, Papain-like protease protein, Molecular docking, (R)4-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-4-hexenyl)-benzoic acid
Sciences of Phytochemistry
Vol 1, Issue 1
2022
Opinions
Impact of Preparation Method in Co-Amorphous System
By Amelia Soyata, Kenti, Meylani Sutoro, Novaliana Devianti Sagita

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The co-amorphous solid dispersion system is one of the methods to improve the physicochemical characteristics and stability of a drug. With the appropriate material ratio and preparation method, a co-amorphous solid dispersion system can increase the bioavailability of the drug due to an increase in solubility. In addition, the co-amorphous system will maintain its amorphous shape longer than a single compound. However, using unsuitable materials and methods for co-amorphous fabrication will precipitate them and diminish their bioavailability. As a result, exploring the fundamentals of co-amorphous manufacturing methods is essential. This article discusses the physicochemical properties and solubility of co-amorphous mixtures prepared by solvent evaporation, milling, and quenching methods. Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar literature were obtained using the keywords 'co-amorphous preparation', 'co-amorphous method', 'solvent evaporation for co-amorphous preparation', 'milling methods for co-amorphous preparation', and 'quenching method for co-amorphous preparation'. We excluded literature whose application was not in the medical field. Based on the findings, the co-amorphous preparation methods have their respective advantages and disadvantages. Solvent evaporation can only be used on a small scale. Milling techniques are laborious and time-consuming but have a large yield and less chemical destruction, while the quenching method is only intended for thermostable compounds.
Co-amorphous; co-amorphous method; solvent evaporation method; milling techniques; quenching methods
Sciences of Pharmacy
Vol 1, Issue 1
2022
Mini-reviews
Quality By Design: Approach to Analytical Method Validation
By Mayang Kusuma Dewi, Reza Pratama, Mia Arifka, Anis Yohana Chaerunisa

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A pharmaceutical industry is highly regulated by a quality policy in its management. The principles of Quality by Design (QbD) must be applied to ensure the development of pragmatic and systematic methods while managing the risks associated with analytical methods. Quality by Design (QbD) is a scientific way to develop easy and robust analytical techniques for critical analysis. Quality by Design (QbD) is a systematic approach to product or method development that starts with predetermined goals and uses a science and risk management approach to achieve product and method understanding. The concept of risk management is deeply integrated into the quality assurance system to ensure pharmaceutical quality and patient safety. In the context of quality control, detecting impurities in raw materials and finished products is a major concern. Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) aims to achieve quality in measurement. The main objectives are to explain the various steps involved in developing a method using a Quality by Design (QbD) approach for the development of analytical methods and to explain the implementation of Quality by Design (QbD) in the validation of analytical procedures. The advantages of applying Quality by Design (QbD) principles to analytical techniques include finding and minimizing sources of variability that could lead to poor method robustness and ensuring that the method meets the desired performance requirements over the product and method life cycle. The Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) strategy is increasingly being adopted as it allows an early understanding of the method and guarantees the determination of a wider set of experimental conditions.
Risk analysis; quality by design (QbD); analytical method validation
Sciences of Pharmacy
Vol 1, Issue 1
2022
Original article
In-silico study for African plants with possible beta-cell regeneration effect through inhibition of DYRK1A
By Igbokwe Mariagoretti Chikodili, Ejiofor InnocentMary IfedibaluChukwu, Chioma Ifeoma Ibe, Nnorom Miriam Chinwendu

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The continuous destruction of normal insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells is a contributing factor in all common forms of diabetes, due to insufficient production of insulin, especially in type 1 diabetes. There are attempts at beta-cells transplantation, but the cost and availability of donors pose a great challenge to the process. Dual-Specificity Tyrosine Phosphorylation-Regulated Kinase A (DYRK1A) plays a crucial role in beta-cells destruction. Our research targets to identify plants that can be utilized as a possible alternative approach to beta-cell replacement through a pharmacologically induced regeneration of new beta-cells in-silico. The 3D structure DYRK1A and 6511 phytochemicals were obtained from the Protein Data Bank and the African Natural Products Database respectively. They were duly prepared for molecular docking simulations (MDS). MDS was implemented, after validation of docking protocols, in AutoDock-Vina®, with virtual screening scripts. Phytocompounds with good binding affinities for DYRK1A were selected as frontrunners. The compounds were screened for toxicity, Lipinski’s rule confirmation with Data Warrior software followed by kinase inhibitory bioactivity prediction with the Molinspiration Chemoinformatics web tool. Twelve phytocompounds were found to be predictably highly active in-silico against DYRK1A with good drug-like property based on Lipinski’s rule, non-mutagenic, non-tumorigenic, no reproductive effect, and non-irritant, with high predicted bioactivity. In-silico active phytocompounds against DYRK1A with their plant sources and physicochemical parameters were identified. Further studies will be carried out in-vitro and in-vivo to validate the results of this study using plants containing the identified phytocompounds.
Beta-cells; Regeneration; Phytocompounds; DYRK1A; Virtual screening; Diabetes
Sciences of Phytochemistry
Vol 1, Issue 1
2022
Original article
Instant Granules of Mangosteen Peel (Garcinia Mangostana L.) Ethanol Extract as Antioxidants
By Nida Adlina Fadhila, Sriwidodo Sriwidodo, Anis Yohana Chaerunisa

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Free radicals in the air can trigger dangerous diseases, such as cancer and premature aging. To avoid this, antioxidant compounds are needed to donate electrons to free radicals, causing them to become more stable. A powerful antioxidant can be found in nature, including the mangosteen peel. This study aimed to find the best instant granule preparation formula from mangosteen peel extract (MPE) that can be practically consumed and the antioxidant stability during preparation. The wet granulation method was used to make instant granules, which have four formulas with varying amounts of xanthan gum as a suspending agent and maltodextrin as a solubility enhancer. The antioxidant activity was examined using the DPPH method. Based on the findings, formula 4 had the best properties with a drying shrinkage of 1.80%, a flow rate of 11.54 ± 1.56 g/s, repose's angle of 29.112 ± 0.45ᵒ, carr index of 14.043 ± 1.9%, and dispersion rate of 0.164 g/s. There is no residue in the solution. The shape and taste of this formula were most acceptable. The antioxidant activity of the extract and instant granules was not significantly different, with the IC50 of 34.64 μg/ml and 44.12 μg/ml, respectively. Based on the test result, it can be concluded that formula 4 with a concentration of xanthan gum 1% and 20% maltodextrin is a potent antioxidant supplement.
Free radicals; antioxidants; DPPH; mangosteen peel extract; instant granule
Sciences of Pharmacy
Vol 1, Issue 1
2022
Reviews
Thermal Behavior of Polymers in Solid-State
By Maria Elvina Tresia Butar-Butar, Anis Yohana Chaerunisaa

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A variety of potential polymers with chemical and physical stability characteristics and abundant availability lead to the rapid application of polymers in various fields. One of the crucial things that are crucial to be discussed from such polymers is the characteristic of thermal behavior. Each type of polymer such as natural and synthetic has different thermal characteristics, including Tc, Tg, Tm, and Td which can be the determining factor of polymer selection of processing and application temperature. The thermal properties will also affect molecular interactions, physical stability in manufacturing, distribution, and storage. Therefore, in this article will appoint a study on the thermal characteristics of natural and synthetic polymers, the effect of modification on the thermal properties of polymers, efforts to increase the stability of thermal, and polymer applications in the field of pharmaceutical technology.
Polymers; thermal behavior; thermal stability; physical characteristics
Sciences of Pharmacy
Vol 1, Issue 1
2022
Reviews
Pharmacological activities of bioactive compounds isolated from Acacia pennata (L) Willd.: A comprehensive update and application of in-silico techniques for repurposing
By Farida Pegu

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Bioactive compounds (BACs) are naturally occurring compounds with pharmacological activities. BACs isolated from plants have significantly contributed to modern medicine. Multiple studies had reported the isolation of BACs with diverse pharmacological activities from Acacia pennata (L.) Willd. This review aims to compile all the available data on the pharmacological activities of the BACs that had been isolated from A. pennata. An online literature survey was carried out on academic databases namely Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Keywords such as ‘Acacia pennata’, ‘isolated compound’, and ‘pharmacological activity’ were used, either alone or in combination. A total of 52 articles published between the year 1980 to 2020 that contained relevant information on A. pennata were identified and collected. To date, a total of 29 compounds had been isolated from A. pennata. The compounds isolated from A. pennata belonged to secondary metabolites namely triterpenoid ketone, ceramide, alkaloid, saponin, flavonoid-glycoside, and terpenoid. A total of 22 BACs had been evaluated for biological activities such as anti-Alzheimer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-viral, anti-nociceptive, and anti-cancer activities. The pharmacological activities of 7 compounds isolated from A. pennata remained unexplored. A total of 14 compounds that had been isolated from A. pennata were also reported to be isolated from other plants. This comprehensive review provides an update on all the pharmacological works that had been carried out on the isolated BACs of A. pennata to date. In-silico techniques may be applied to repurpose the isolated BACs of A. pennata prior to wet lab studies.
Acacia pennata, bioactive compounds, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, in-silico
Sciences of Phytochemistry
Vol 1, Issue 1
2022
Reviews
Method and Critical Aspect of Semisolid Mixing
By Meylani Sutoro, Yuniarti Falya, Restu Harisma Damayanti

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Semisolid preparations are widely used to deliver drugs through the skin, cornea, rectal tissue, nasal mucosa, vagina, buccal tissue, urethral membrane, and outer ear lining. They can prevent the first-pass metabolism, reduce side effects, provide immediate local effects, and increase patient compliance. However, an improper manufacturing process will produce a system with bad characteristics, one of which is the mixing process. Several conditions that need to be considered, such as vacuum, temperature, humidity, pressure, stirring speed, stirring time, shear stress, the volume of the mixture, and type of impeller, can affect the consistency, size, and dispersion of particle size, homogeneity, porosity, reactivity, and other characteristics that affect the quality of the semisolid system. Therefore, this article discusses the critical aspects of semisolid mixing, the types, principles, and specifications of several mixer tools and impellers, and how they affect the characteristics of semisolid systems. This review concludes that each type of semisolid preparation requires an impeller and mixer with the specifications and mixing conditions that suit the needs in maintaining the stability and quality of the semisolid system.
Semisolid mixer; critical aspect of semisolid mixing; semisolid manufacturing
Sciences of Pharmacy
Vol 1, Issue 1
2022

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