Sciences of Phytochemistry

Sciences of Phytochemistry

Articles Published in Volume 2 Issue 2

https://doi.org/10.58920/sciphy0202

Kosisochukwu Frances Okoye, Fredrick Chinedu Anowi, InnocentMary IfedibaluChukwu Ejiofor, Olanrewaju Mary Ololade. Pharmacognostic study and sedative activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum stem methanol extract and fractions. Sciences of Phytochemistry. 2023; 2(2):127-138.

Abstract: Insomnia is known as sleep insufficiency and is considered a capital public health concern. Bryophyllum pinnatum which belongs to the family Grassulaceae is used in folkloric medicine to treat various kind of ailment. The aim of the study was to undertake a pharmacognostic study of the stem and dete Show more...
Abstract: Insomnia is known as sleep insufficiency and is considered a capital public health concern. Bryophyllum pinnatum which belongs to the family Grassulaceae is used in folkloric medicine to treat various kind of ailment. The aim of the study was to undertake a pharmacognostic study of the stem and determine the sedative/hypnotic ability of the methanol extract and fraction of the stem. The physicochemical analysis indicated moisture content (12.68%), total ash (3.75%), acid insoluble ash (2.60%), water soluble ash (2.00%), water soluble extractive (6.02%) and alcohol soluble extractive (10.80%). The organoleptic evaluation of the powdered leaves revealed an odorless, green plant with bitter taste. The microscopic analysis of the leaf revealed palisade cell, spongy cell, stoma, collenchyma, xylem tissue, phloem tissue. The transverse section of the stem revealed epidermis, endodermis, xylem and cortex. The acute toxicity result revealed that Picralima nitida had no adverse effect in Wistar mice. The result showed that ethyl acetate fraction had sedative/hypnotic ability, affected the level of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP), improved kidney function, and insignificantly increased body weight of mice. This study demonstrated that B. pinnatum could be an alternative medicine in pharmacological treatment of insomnia. Show less...

Insomnia Bryophyllum pinnatum Sedative hypnotic

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Shouvik Kumar Nandy, Sattwik Das. Unveiling the diverse medicinal properties of Murraya koenigii. Sciences of Phytochemistry. 2023; 2(2):107-126.

Abstract: Since the beginning of time, nature has provided medicines for treating fatal illnesses. Herbalists believe that certain plants have medicinal qualities. In tribal and rural communities, medicinal plants provide as an easily accessible source of treatment. The identification of various rejuvenating Show more...
Abstract: Since the beginning of time, nature has provided medicines for treating fatal illnesses. Herbalists believe that certain plants have medicinal qualities. In tribal and rural communities, medicinal plants provide as an easily accessible source of treatment. The identification of various rejuvenating molecules that can halt or lessen the pathology of a variety of diseases will be regarded as a significant development of the present. There has been a scientific advancement in this area, and current studies on herbal medicines and traditional cures have attracted significant interest from all over the world. This plant, popularly known as the curry tree, is frequently used as herb and is also used to treat a variety of problems in traditional Indian medicine. About 80–85% of people worldwide rely on herbal products because they are thought to be efficient, secure, and cost-effective. Reviewing the plant taxonomy, ethnobotanical characteristics, folkloric or traditional uses, phytochemical, and pharmacological qualities of the Murraya koenigii plant was the goal of the current study. The leaves are used internally for dysentery as a carminative, tonic, stomachic, and inducer of vomiting. The usage of other parts includes treating piles, preventing helminthiasis, and reducing body heat, itchiness, and inflammation. Following several reports that this plant may treat a wide range of illnesses, scientists have worked to confirm the effectiveness of this plant by biological screening. A review of the literature suggests that Murraya koenigii has various medical benefits, including activity of antimicrobial, cardiac, anti-oxidative, anti-diabetic and cholesterol reduction, cytotoxic action, antiulcer, and anti-diarrhea. Show less...

Murraya koenigii Phytochemistry Pharmacological activity: Ethanobotany Traditional medicine

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Enoch Buba Badgal, Mubarak Muhammad Dahiru, Neksumi Musa. Phytochemical profiling, heavy metals composition, in silico aphrodisiac potential, and ADMET study of Gardenia erubescens. Sciences of Phytochemistry. 2023; 2(2):91-106.

Abstract: This study aimed to explore the phytochemical profile, heavy metal composition, in silico aphrodisiac potential, and ADMET study of Gardenia erubescens due to its folkloric acclaimed aphrodisiac use. The phytochemicals were quantified gravimetrically while the identification of bioactive compounds w Show more...
Abstract: This study aimed to explore the phytochemical profile, heavy metal composition, in silico aphrodisiac potential, and ADMET study of Gardenia erubescens due to its folkloric acclaimed aphrodisiac use. The phytochemicals were quantified gravimetrically while the identification of bioactive compounds was carried out using a combined Gas spectrophotometer-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS). Heavy metals were quantified using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer while the aphrodisiac and ADMET studies were in silico. The result showed the presence of alkaloids (22.33% ±1.45), saponins (20.17% ±1.88), glycosides (0.55% ±0.03), and flavonoids (32.67% ±1.45), with the absence of steroids and terpenoids. GC-MS analysis identified 25 compounds with linoleic acid having the highest peak area (28.01%) next to palmitic acid (14.08%). Chromium, Cadmium, and Lead were present in concentrations of 0.145 ±0.03, 0.001 ±0.00, and 0.065 ±0.03 ppm respectively. Ethyl D-glucopyranoside had the least BA (-8) and Ki (1.35 µM) docked with human arginase II while Tyrosinol had the least BA (-6.2) and Ki (28.21 µM) docked with phosphodiesterase 5 though both were higher than Sildenafil citrate. All the top docked compounds were predicted to be neither substrates nor inhibitors of P-glycoproteins and cytochrome P450 enzymes without CNS permeability and hepatotoxicity. Conclusively, the present study supports the folkloric aphrodisiac application of Gardenia erubescens, and the heavy metals level was below the acceptable regulatory level, thus, might be safe for occasional use. Additionally, the identified compounds might be considered a novel source of therapeutics against erectile dysfunction. Show less...

Aphrodisiacs Arginase II Erectile dysfunction In silico Phosphodiesterase Phytochemical profiling

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Wrestwar D Marak. Exploring the potential impact of herbal antioxidants on human cardiovascular diseases. Sciences of Phytochemistry. 2023; 2(2):70-90.

Abstract: The body's antioxidant system efficiently neutralizes reactive oxygen species, which are intermediates formed during routine metabolic activity. Oxidative stress resulting from an imbalance in this neutralization process is known to be a key factor in many human ailments, including atherosclerosis a Show more...
Abstract: The body's antioxidant system efficiently neutralizes reactive oxygen species, which are intermediates formed during routine metabolic activity. Oxidative stress resulting from an imbalance in this neutralization process is known to be a key factor in many human ailments, including atherosclerosis and various cardiovascular diseases. Observational epidemiological research conducted over the past several decades has shown that consumption of vegetables and fruits rich in vitamins and antioxidants is associated with a reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease. However, it is crucial to exercise caution when considering the use of herbal antioxidants as a treatment for various ailments, including cardiovascular conditions. This caution arises from concerns related to their safety, potentially life-threatening side effects, toxicity, and potential interactions with other medications. Multiple research studies have highlighted these risks associated with antioxidant usage as a form of medical intervention. This overview briefly summarizes cardiovascular disease, associated risk factors, and the role of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in its development. Next, delve into some of the most significant plant-based antioxidants, their therapeutic uses, as well as the potential benefits and drawbacks of using them to treat various diseases, with a particular focus on their relevance to cardiovascular disease. Show less...

Cardiovascular disease Herbal antioxidants Reactive oxygen species Oxidative stress Enzymatic antioxidant Non-enzymatic antioxidant

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Ahmed Abd El-Moniem Amer. A narrative review on clinical trials showing contraindicated drugs with grapefruit juice. Sciences of Phytochemistry. 2023; 2(2):48-69.

Abstract: Medication and food are frequently consumed together. However, some foods have interactions with medicines by changing key regulators of systemic medication availability. Their consumption is linked to interactions with a wide range of medications. One of the most significant beverages that can be h Show more...
Abstract: Medication and food are frequently consumed together. However, some foods have interactions with medicines by changing key regulators of systemic medication availability. Their consumption is linked to interactions with a wide range of medications. One of the most significant beverages that can be harmful when combined with certain medicines is grapefruit juice. Furanocoumarins' mechanism-based suppression of intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4, which increases the bioavailability of drugs that are substrates, is the main mechanism by which interactions are mediated. There have also been reports of interactions between grapefruit products and uptake transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs). It has been suggested that polyphenolic substances like flavonoids are what cause the interactions between P-gp and OATP. The amounts of furanocoumarins and flavonoids in the grapefruit product, the amount of juice consumed, the medium PH, and the inherent diversity of enzymes and transporter components in humans can all have an impact on the processes and magnitudes of interactions. In this review, we are going to shed light on clinical trials showing grapefruit juice-drug interactions and what should the health provider do for better clinical care. Show less...

Grapefruit juice contraindicated drugs drug interactions statins food interactions

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Novi Yantih, Esti Mulatsari, Yati Sumiyati, Intan Permata Sari, Corry Qisthiara, Angelita Prastica, Johana Devira Rezon, Daffa Millati Azka, Dini Masyrufah Ariyanti. Nutritional analysis of Colocasia esculenta l. tubers aqueous extract and comparative analysis with existing literature. Sciences of Phytochemistry. 2023; 2(2):40-47.

Abstract: Taro (C. esculenta L.) is a plant in the Araceae family that is farmed as a tuber. This plant is one of the non-animal sources of nutrients, minerals, and trace elements and has had numerous biological activities. Taro plants offer antidiabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and antihepato Show more...
Abstract: Taro (C. esculenta L.) is a plant in the Araceae family that is farmed as a tuber. This plant is one of the non-animal sources of nutrients, minerals, and trace elements and has had numerous biological activities. Taro plants offer antidiabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and antihepatotoxic properties. To have better nutritional content and wider and longer-lasting applications in culinary products, the taro tuber requires going through a process that increases its use value, one of which is extraction. The research aim of this work was to use several analytical methods to determine the nutrition components in the aqueous extract of C. esculenta L. Some of the nutrients found in the aqueous extract of C. esculenta L. consist of total protein 10.9%, total carbohydrate 75.5%, amylose 8.20%, amylopectin 43.6%, starch 51.8%, omega 6 0.2%, and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, and E at 0.5 IU/100gr, 24.8 g/100gr, and 0.01 mg/100 gr. Water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, and C were present in amounts of 4.55, 1.96, 0.17, and 0.70 mg/kg, respectively. C. esculenta L. aqueous extract also included minerals such as the trace elements sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in the amounts of 35.2, 4638, 137, 129, 47.9, and 13.8 (mg/100gram), respectively. The aqueous extract of C. esculenta L. tubers includes a variety of nutrients and offers the potential to be consumed as a functional food. Show less...

Nutritious aqueous extract Colocasia esculenta L. tuber

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Jimmy J Daka, Chansa Mulenga. In-vitro antimicrobial activity of lemon bark extract against Salmonella shigella and Escherichia coli. Sciences of Phytochemistry. 2023; 2(2):31-39.

Abstract: The main objective of the study was the extraction and testing of the antimicrobial activity of the Lemon bark extract against the microorganisms involved in air and waterborne infections. The antibiotics are not very effective in the present day as the microorganisms are becoming resistant, the stu Show more...
Abstract: The main objective of the study was the extraction and testing of the antimicrobial activity of the Lemon bark extract against the microorganisms involved in air and waterborne infections. The antibiotics are not very effective in the present day as the microorganisms are becoming resistant, the study concentrates on the antimicrobial activity and time ahead of the prophylactic potential of the lemon bark extract. Phytochemical analysis for the constituents of Lemon bark showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids and tannins in the aqueous form of solution. The potency test on microorganisms proved to be active against Salmonella shigella with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 100 mg/L was 16.27 mm, 150 mg/L was 16.43 mm and 250 mg/L was 16.73 mm. Meanwhile, for Escherichia coli for 100 mg/L was 13.20 mm, 100 mg/L was 13.10 mm and 150 mg/L was 13.13 mm. Show less...

Lemon bark extract Prophylaxis Airborne infections Waterborne infections

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Ahmed Abd El-Moniem Amer. Insights on the Efficacy and Safety of Selected Herbal Teas. Sciences of Phytochemistry. 2023; 2(2):22-30.

Abstract: Herbal teas are very common around the world. It has a good therapeutic effect. But due to adulteration, we face an obstacle to using them. The author has collected some clinical trials on commercial herbal tea formulations on the market that have proven their efficacy and safety. So, the future is Show more...
Abstract: Herbal teas are very common around the world. It has a good therapeutic effect. But due to adulteration, we face an obstacle to using them. The author has collected some clinical trials on commercial herbal tea formulations on the market that have proven their efficacy and safety. So, the future is for herbal medicine owing to people's psychology, minimum adverse reactions, and lower cost. The pharmaceutical manufacturing of herbal tea formulations should be encouraged to use them as add-on therapy or healthy daily beverages at least. Show less...

Herbal Tea Herbal Medicine Wang Nam Yen Mother’s Milk Cystus Zedoary.

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Namrata Santosh Naware, Shreya Sakharam Ambatkar, Tanmay Sanjay Kamble, Sonal Bangar, Kiran Babu Uppar, Kshitij Shirke, Mukesh Patil, Ashish Jain. A review focusing on the benefits of green tea catechins as nutraceuticals . Sciences of Phytochemistry. 2023; 2(2):1-12.

Abstract: Any product generated from food sources that offer additional health advantages over and above the essential nutritional content present in foods is referred to as a nutraceutical under the broad umbrella term. The catechins in Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) namely (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-g Show more...
Abstract: Any product generated from food sources that offer additional health advantages over and above the essential nutritional content present in foods is referred to as a nutraceutical under the broad umbrella term. The catechins in Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) namely (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which can be used as nutraceuticals in food or as a component of food items has been discussed. Catechins being polyphenols and antioxidants are found to have a wide range of therapeutic application like weight loss, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and a few more therapeutic applications, through various mechanisms like stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase, enhanced apoptosis, decreased expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. The most recent method for extracting catechins include combining the extraction processing of PEF or IPL with Subcritical water extraction. Food additives have been mixed with green tea extracts to develop a desired formulation like chewing gum and capsule. As green tea catechins are a beneficial phytoconstituents to improve overall health, its prospects include formulation of a gelatin gummy formulation which will improve its palatability by masking the bitter taste. Gelatin gummy formulation can be carried conveniently and will provide easy access to the consumer as compared to green tea. Furthermore, we found a scope to develop an analytical method for EGCG and carry out its validation by HPLC which will be more reliable and cost-efficient in comparison to the existing UHPLC methods for EGCG. Show less...

Camellia sinensis epicatechin epicatechin-3-gallate epigallocatechin-3-gallate nutraceutical

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Kshitij Suhas Shirke, Tanmay Sanjay Kamble, Kiran Babu Uppar, Namrata Santosh Naware, Sonal Balasaheb Bangar, Shreya Sakharam Ambatkar, Mukesh Patil, Ashish Jain. A mini review on the analytical method and its validation for Psidium guajava. Sciences of Phytochemistry. 2023; 2(2):13-21.

Abstract: The well-known tropical tree Psidium guajava, also known as the guava, is widely farmed for its fruit. This article consists of literature about various analytical techniques like TLC, UV spectrophotometry, HPLC, and HPTLC that could be used to analyze the Guava plant. The HPLC analysis of Quercetin Show more...
Abstract: The well-known tropical tree Psidium guajava, also known as the guava, is widely farmed for its fruit. This article consists of literature about various analytical techniques like TLC, UV spectrophotometry, HPLC, and HPTLC that could be used to analyze the Guava plant. The HPLC analysis of Quercetin isolated from the leaves of the guava plant uses a 4 x 125 mm Hypersil ODS column with a mobile phase of 0.5 percent ortho-phosphoric acid in water and methanol at a flow rate of 1ml/min. The column wash times are 20 min and 18 min, respectively. 250C is the temperature in the column. Silica gel 60F 254 pre-coated plates (10x10 cm) were used with toluene: acetone: formic acid (38:10:5) as the solvent system for HPTLC analysis of quercetin obtained from the tender leaves of guava. The λ max was observed in the U.V. spectrum of the isolated compound (quercetin) on three standard wavelengths: 212 nm, 256 nm, and 372 nm. An effort can be made to produce a new analytical method that will be cost-effective and time-saving. Show less...

Psidium guajava Quercetin HPLC HPTLC

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