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Odion, E.E., Nwigwe, G.N., Ambe, D.A., Nnamani, M.N., Osigwe, C.C., Odiete, E.C., Iyanyi, L.U. Phytochemical Profiling of Passiflora edulis Vines. Sciences of Phytochemistry 2024, 3(1), 11-19.

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Odion, EE, Nwigwe, GN, Ambe, DA, Nnamani, MN, Osigwe, CC, Odiete, EC, Iyanyi, LU. Phytochemical Profiling of Passiflora edulis Vines. Sciences of Phytochemistry. 2024; 3(1):11-19.

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Emmanuel Eimiomodebheki Odion, Godfavour Nzubechukwu Nwigwe, Daniel Akpe-Efiak Ambe, Monica Nnenna Nnamani, Chinyelu Clementina Osigwe, Eravweroso Congrat Odiete, Loveth Uchechukwu Iyanyi. 2024. "Phytochemical Profiling of Passiflora edulis Vines" Sciences of Phytochemistry 3, no. 1:11-19.

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Home / Sciences of Phytochemistry / Volume 3 Issue 1 / 10.58920/sciphy0301219

Research Article

Phytochemical Profiling of Passiflora edulis Vines

by Emmanuel Eimiomodebheki Odion , Godfavour Nzubechukwu Nwigwe, Daniel Akpe-Efiak Ambe , Monica Nnenna Nnamani , Chinyelu Clementina Osigwe , Eravweroso Congrat Odiete , Loveth Uchechukwu Iyanyi

Academic editor: Samir Chtita
Sciences of Phytochemistry 3(1): 11-19 (2024); https://doi.org/10.58920/sciphy0301219
This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 4.0 International License.


Received
14 Feb 2024
Revised
28 Feb 2024
Accepted
07 Mar 2024
Published
12 Mar 2024

Abstract: Over time Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (PEFF) have been utilized in traditional medicine for the treatment of different health ailments. This study aims to identify the phytochemical constituents in the vines of PEFF responsible for its traditional usage. Maceration in methanol was used in the extraction of the powdered vines and standard procedures were also used to screen for its phytochemical contents. Two chromatographic techniques such as High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) were exploited to identify and quantify the phytoconstituents in the methanol extract. Phytochemical screening showed alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, saponins and terpenoids in the vines of PEFF. Prominent compound revealed by HPLC analysis include pyrogallol (18.64%), ferulic acid (13.71%), ellagic acid (12.88%), salicylic acid (10.83%), ribalinidine (10.50%) and cresol (9.67%). While the GC-MS analysis showed Octadec-9-enoic acid (67.78%); 3-methylindole-2-carboxlic acid,4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-, ethyl ester (16.89%) and 3-aminopyrrolidine (14.52%). Thus, the vines of PEFF contain phytoconstituents responsible for it use in traditional medicine.

Keywords: Gas Chromatography-Mass SpectrometryHigh Pressure Liquid ChromatographyPassiflora edulis vinePhytochemicals


Introduction

Passiflora edulis Sims (family-passifloraceae), also known as yellow passion fruit, it vernacular name is ‘mfri vine’ (Oro people of Akwa-Ibom state, Nigeria). It has a shallow root, climbing tendrils, evergreen vine that grows to 25.40-38.10 cm long, 7.62-12.70 cm wide and produce purple-white flower that is showy bowl shape fragrant. It is native of Paraguay, Southern Brazil and Northern Argentina but cultivated and dispersed in warm temperature and tropical climates (1). Three deep lobes are observed in mature leaves, though absent in younger leaves. The leaf lamina is 6-15 cm long, sleekly green, orderly toothed, 2-4 cm long petiolate and 2 raised gland at the end.  Stipule is 10 cm long and linear (2).

Synonym of Passiflora edulis include Passiflora ligularis, Passiflora lauriflora, Passiflora actinia, Passiflora amethystina, Passiflora capsularis, Passiflora cincinnata, Passiflora edulis f. edulis, Passiflora incarnata, Passiflora morifolia, Passiflora urnifolia, Passiflora coccinea, Passiflora setacea, Passiflora alata, Passiflora quadrangularis, and Passiflora ligularis (3, 4).

The variety Passiflora edulis f flavicarpa (PEFF) has been the cornerstone of several herbal preparations for thousands of year, it is use in traditional medicine for treatment and management of convulsion, pain, insomnia, hypertension, migraine, nervousness, symptom of alcoholism, cancer and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (5, 6). While pharmacologically, activities such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, ant-diabetic, antispasmodic, neuroprotective, antidiarrheal, antioxidant, gastroprotective, antihypertensive, antibacterial, and antiproliferative have been documented (1, 7).

Several phytochemicals have been identified from different parts of the Passiflora edulis, they include vitexin, isovitexin, isoorientin, luteolin, quercetin and apigenin (8). Phenylethanoid glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides and benzyl alcohol have been isolated and characterized from its stem and leaves (9), its fruits are rich sources of  ethyl propanoate, propyl acetate, methyl butanoate, 2-methyl propylacetate, 1-hexanol, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, germacrene D and alpha-terpineol. These compounds contributes to the characteristic fruity, floral and sweety aroma of the fruits (10-12). 

Studies have been done on the fruit and leaves of PEFF, due to its medicinal and economic importance. The medicinal relevance of the vines have been meagre and yet to be linked to the different phytochemicals it possess. The need to identify these phytochemical constituents either as a group or individual has become imperative. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the phytochemicals in the vines of PEFF using standard methods and chromatographic techniques, thus providing the basis for its use ethno-medicinally.

Materials and Methods

Collection, Identification, and Extraction

The vines of PEFF were collected in the month of October, 2023 from Akwa-Ibom state, Ibesikpo-Asutan Local Government Area, bounded by latitude 4o 46’ 0’’ N, longitude 7o 57’ 0’’ E. It was identified in University of Benin, by Prof H.A. Akinnibosun of the Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology. Herbarium number was provided UBH 353 and sample specimen was kept in the Departmental herbarium.

PEFF vines were detached, dried for 2 weeks under shade and pulverized using electric milling machine to produce fine particles. Two hundred grams of the powdered vines were macerated with methanol (99.8%) and shaken intermittently every 30 min, for 2 hours, before the mix was kept in a dark compartment for 3 days. The extract was decanted, filtered (size 1 paper) and concentrated in vacuum. Extract obtained was kept in a refrigerator at 4oC until used. 

Phytochemical Screening of PEFF Powdered Vines

Powdered vines of PEFF were screened for phytochemicals by methods described by Sofowora (13) and Trease and Evans, (14). Phytochemicals evaluated are alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids.

Detection of Alkaloids: The powdered vines (0.5 g) was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid, filtered and tested for the presence of alkaloids. Mayers test: To the filtrate (1 mL) in a test tube, 4 drops of Mayers reagent was added. A yellow cream precipitate formation indicates the presence of alkaloids. 

Wagner’s test: Wagner’s reagent (4 drops) was added to 1 mL of the filtrate, if a brown-reddish brown formation is observed, and it indicates the presence of alkaloids.

Detection of Flavonoids: The powdered vines (0.5 g) was dissolved in distilled water , boiled for 5 min., filtered and tested for the presence of flavonoids and saponins.

Lead acetate test: A few drops of lead acetate solution was added to the filtrate (1 mL). A yellow-colour precipitate indicates the presence of flavonoids.

Detection of Saponins: Filtrate (1 mL) was mixed vigorously with 1 mL of distilled water. The formation of frothing indicates the presence of saponins. 

Detection of Tannins: Powdered vines (0.5 g) are mixed with a few millilitres of distilled water and heated on a water bath, then the mixture was filtered. Ferric chloride was added to the filtrate. The dark green colour indicates the presence of tannins.

Detection of Steroids: A few drops of acetic anhydride are added to the filtrate (methanolic) and the formation of violet to blue to green in some samples indicates the presence of steroids.

Detection of Terpenoids: Powdered vines (10 mg) was mixed with 2 mL chloroform and 3 mL concentrated sulfuric acid added carefully to form a layer. A reddish-brown colour indicates the presence of terpenoids.

Detection of glycosides: About 5 mg of the powdered vines was boiled with 10 % HCl for a few minutes on a water bath, filtered and allowed to cool. An equal volume of chloroform is added to the filtrate. A few drops of 10 % ammonia are added to the mixture and heated. The formation of pink colour indicates the presence of glycosides.

Analysis of Methanol Extract of Passiflora edulis Vines by HPLC

Analysis (HPLC) of the methanol extract of Passiflora edulis was done using Shimadzu LC-10AD dual binary pumps, Shimadzu CTO-10AS column oven, and Shimadzu Prominence SPD-20A UV/Vis detector. C-12 normal phase column (Phenomenex, Gemini 5 μ, 200 mm length × 4.8 mm internal diameter) was utilized for the analysis. Mobile phase consisting of solvent A and B, where solvent A was made of acetic acid-acidified deionized water at pH 2.8, while solvent B was acetonitrile at 0.8 mL/min flow rate. Solvent B (5%) was used to equilibrate the column for 20 min post injection of each sample. Temperature of the column was set at 38oC, volume of injection was 20 µL and wavelength set at 280 nm, Compounds were identified and quantified by comparison of the retention times and peak areas with standard (pure) compounds by plotting calibration plot of external standards.

Gradient elution: 0-5 min, 5-9% solvent B; 5-15 min, 9% solvent B; 15-22 min, 9-11% solvent B; 22-38 min, 11-18% solvent B; 38-43 min, 18-23% solvent B; 43-44 min, 23-90% solvent B; 44-45 min, 90-80% solvent B; 45-55 min (15). Standard (AccuStandard, USA) used for this analysis were graciously provided by Dr. David Ogochukwu of Docchy Laboratory and Environmental Services, Awka. The standard includes ephedrine, ribalinidine, cresol, ellagic acid, naringin, coumaric acid, isoflavone, ferulic acid, pyrogallol, naringenin and salicylic acid. Solutions were prepared at 1 mg/mL for each of the standard used.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of PEFF Methanol Extract

Gas Chromatography hyphenated to a Mass Spectrometric (Agilent USA 7890A GC system, 5675C Inert MSD) with triple axis detector equipped with an auto injector (10 µl syringe) was used. Helium gas was used as a carrier gas and all chromatographic separation was performed on capillary column (Agilent 19091-433HP-5Ms) having specification: length; 30 m, internal diameter 0.2 µm, thickness; 250 µm, treated with phenyl methyl silox (5 %). Other operating conditions were ion source temperature (EI) at 250oC, interface temperature of 300oC, pressure of 16.2 psia, out time of 1.8 mm, 1 µl injector in split mode with split ratio of 1:50, injection temperature of 280oC. The column temperature started at 50oC for 2 mins and changed to 100oC at the rate of 20oC/min. The temperature was raised to 250oC at the rate of 20oC/min and held for 5 mins. The total elution was 19 minutes. MS Solution software provided by supplier was used to control the system and to acquire the data. Identification of the compounds was carried out by comparing the mass spectra obtained with those of the standard mass spectra from NIST library (NISTII) (16).

Results

Qualitative phytochemical screening of PEFF revealed the presences of secondary metabolite as shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Phytoconstituents of the powdered vines of Passiflora edulis.

Phytochemical

Inference

Alkaloid

+

Flavonoid

+

Glycoside

 +

Tannin

 +

Terpenoid

 +

Steroid

+

Saponin

+

Note: (-) means absent and (+) means present.

HPLC analysis of the methanol extract of the vines of PEFF displayed Eleven phyto-compounds as shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Phytoconstituents from HPLC analysis of the methanol vines extract of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa.

S/N

Compounds

Retention Time

Percentage Area

Concentration (µg/ml)

1

Ephedrine

1.126

0.16

0.0953

2

Ribalinidine

3.376

10.50

2.8080

3

Cresol

7.853

9.67

5.1771

4

Ellagic acid

9.793

12.88

5.1704

5

Naringin

13.016

6.48

3.4699

6

Coumaric acid

19.050

6.58

3.7339

7

Isoflavone

19.606

5.93

2.3822

8

Ferulic acid

22.793

13.71

8.1151

9

pyrogallol

28.696

18.64

11.0394

10

Naringenin

36.016

4.62

2.7354

11

Salicylic acid

42.233

10.83

4.3475

Forty-two compounds were identified in the methanol vines extract of PEFF as shown in Table 3.

Table 3. Phytoconstituents of the GC-MS analysis of the methanol vines extract of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa.

S/N

Compounds

RT (min)

% Area

MF

MW

1

3-Aminopyrrolidine

2.369

14.52

C4H10N2

186.25

2

6-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester,(Z)-

4.454

0.06

C19H36O2

296.49

3

Sarcosine, N-valeryl-, hexadecyl ester

4.961

0.00

C24H47NO3

397.63

4

Adipic acid, pentadecyl 2-propyl ester

5.046

0.00

C24H46O4

398.60

5

1,3-Butadiene, 2-methyl-

5.271

0.00

C5H8

68.12

6

5-Ethyl-dihydro-4,6(1H,5H)pyrimidinedione

5.947

0.00

C6H9N2O2

140.14

7

1-Butanamine, N-nitro-N-propyl-

6.088

0.00

C7H16N2O2

160.21

8

3-Amino-1,2,4-dithiazole-5-thione

6.172

0.00

C2H2N2S3

150.3

9

3-[3-[2-Methyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]propyl]-2-oxazolidinone

6.651

0.00

C9H14NO4

183.20

10

N-(4-Methoxybenzenesulfonyl)azetidin-3-one

7.130

0.02

C10H11NO4S

241.27

11

8,14-Seco-3,19-epoxyandrostane-8,4-dione, 17-acetoxy-3.beta.-methoxy-4,4-dimethyl-

7.384

0.03

C24H36O6

420.5

12

Lochneridine

7.581

0.01

C20H24N2O3

340.4

13

4,5-Dichloro-1,3-dioxolan-2-one

7.806

0.00

C3H2Cl2O3

156.95

14

Methyl tetradecanoate

8.877

0.06

C15H30O2

242.4

15

17-Pentatriacontene

9.074

0.04

C35H70

490.93

16

2-Furanmethanol, .alpha.-(2-nitropropyl)-,

9.215

0.02

C8H11NO4

185.18

17

3,Trans-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4,cis-methoxycyclohexan-1-ol

9.384

0.02

C11H21O2

195.28

18

Undeca-3,4-diene-2,10-dione, 5,6,6-trimethyl-

9.581

0.03

C14H22O2

222.32

19

Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 2-methylphenyl ester

9.750

0.01

C13H24O2

212.33

20

Imidazole-4-carboxamide

10.398

0.07

C4H5N3O

111.10

21

3-(Methylthio)hexyl butanoate

10.623

0.03

C11H22O2S

218.36

22

cis-10-Nonadecenoic acid

10.764

0.01

C19H36O2

296.49

23

Hexadecanoic acid, 2-methyl-

11.018

0.03

C18H36O2

284.48

24

Tricosanoic acid, methyl ester

11.750

0.11

C24H48O2

368.64

25

Octadecanoic acid, 17-oxo-, methylester

12.004

0.05

C19H36O3

312.49

26

Hexadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-, methyl ester

12.370

0.04

C18H36O2

284.48

27

5-Heptenoic acid, methyl ester,

12.511

0.02

C8H14O2

142.20

28

2,5-Di-(4-nitrophenyl)-tetrazol

12.623

0.02

C13H8N6O4

312.24

29

6-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester,(Z)-

12.849

0.04

C19H36O2

296.49

30

2H-Pyrimido[1,2-a]pyrimidine, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-1-methyl-

13.187

0.04

C14H9N3

229.32

31

Eicosane

13.384

0.02

C20H42

282.50

32

Imidazole-4-carboxylic acid, 5-amino-2-methyl-, ethyl ester 

13.581

0.02

C6H9N3O2

155.15

33

4a.alpha.,4b.beta.-Gibbane-1.alpha.,10.beta.-dicarboxylic acid, 4a-formyl-7-hydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylene-, dimethyl ester 

13.807

0.02

C22H30O6

390.5

34

1,2,3-Triphenyl-3-methyl-cyclopropene

13.919

0.01

C22H18

282.4

35

N-Acetyl-d,l-norleucenine

14.201

0.02

C10H12N2O5

240.21

36

3H-Pyrazol-3-one, 4,4'-azobis[2,4-dihydro-2,5-diphenyl]

14.398

0.01

C30H22N6O2

498.5

37

7-Methoxy-9b-methyl-3-(2-methyl [1,3]dioxolan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,5,9b hexahydrocyclopenta[a]naphthalene-3a-carbonitrile

14.708

0.00

C20H25NO3

427.4

38

Nonanoic acid

14.905

0.00

C9H18O2

158.24

39

4-phenyl-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine  

15.131

0.00

C13H9N3

207.23

40

2-Furancarboxamide, N-(1,4,6-trimethyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl)-

15.215

0.00

C14H14N4O2

270.29

41

Octadec-9-enoic acid

15.694

67.78

C18H34O2

282.46

42

Ethyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3-Methylindole-2-carboxylate

17.553

16.89

C12H17NO2

207.27

Note: RT= Retention time, %Area = Percentage area, MF = Molecular formula, and MW=Molecular weight.

Discussion

Phytochemicals like flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids have been previously reported in the leaves (17, 18). These may seems to be non-essential, even though they play vital parts in it survival by mediation of environmental interactions with competitors, disease protection, stress, pollution and ultra violet rays. They also contribute toward the colour, aroma and taste of its parts (19). 

Phytochemicals can be analyzed by chromatographic methods which provide information about the qualitative and quantitative portions. However, in the absent of this method of analysis, the simple phytochemical screening can be use, with the advantage of being economical, easy to perform and fewer materials or reagents may be required. This study screened the vines of PEFF for phytochemicals and Table 1 provide information of the phytoconstituents present following the analysis. 

Previous report of the phytochemical screening of the seeds of Passiflora edulis revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, and steroids (20), while glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins were observed in the leaves. The stem of Passiflora edulis showed the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolics compounds and saponins (21). The presence of these chemicals are in agreement with constituents in the vines. However, it should noted that preliminary screening of this kind has the advantage of providing information about the different classes of phytochemicals present in the screened part, thus enabling the determination of the appropriate method for its extraction and isolation of molecules. Its also aid in predicting the likely pharmacological action the plant will exhibit. Flavonoids are known to scavenge for free radicals that are responsible for plethora of diseases in the body. Indicating that flavonoids could be used to prevent or treat such disease conditions. Glycosides regulate growth and involved in allelopathy (22), tannins are used in dressing wounds due to the wound healing potential (23), saponin and steroids induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cancerous cells (24) and tumor induced oedema (25).

Table 4. Compounds and their pharmacological uses.

S/N

Compounds

Class

Uses

References

1

3-Aminopyrrolidine

Heterocyclic amine

Antibacterial

(25)

2

6-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester,(Z)-

Fatty Acyl

Food, Membrane stabilizer

(26)

3

Sarcosine, N-valeryl-, hexadecyl ester

Amino acid ester

Surfactant

(28)

4

Adipic acid, pentadecyl 2-propyl ester

Ester

New Compound

5

1,3-Butadiene, 2-methyl-

Alkene

Contribute to flavour and fragrance

(29)

6

5-Ethyl-dihydro-4,6(1H,5H)pyrimidinedione

Heterocyclic compound

New Compound

7

1-Butanamine, N-nitro-N-propyl-

Nitroalkylamine

New Compound

8

3-Amino-1,2,4-dithiazole-5-thione

Xanthane anhydride

Anti-aging

(30)

9

3-[3-[2-Methyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]propyl]-2-oxazolidinone

Heteocyclic aklylacetal

New Compound

10

N-(4-Methoxybenzenesulfonyl)azetidin-3-one

Heterocyclic ketone

New Compound

11

8,14-Seco-3,19-epoxyandrostane-8,4-dione, 17-acetoxy-3.beta.-methoxy-4,4-dimethyl-

Tetracyclic ketone

New Compound

12

Lochneridine

Monoterpene indole alkaloid

Anticancer

(31)

13

4,5-Dichloro-1,3-dioxolan-2-one

Carbonate ester

Anticandidal

(32)

14

Methyl tetradecanoate

Fatty Acyl

Membrane stabilizer

15

17-Pentatriacontene

Hydrocarbon

Antimicrobial

(33, 34)

16

2-Furanmethanol, .alpha.-(2-nitropropyl)-,

Heterocyclic alcohol

New Compound

17

3,Trans-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4,cis-methoxycyclohexan-1-ol

Cycloalcohol

Antifungal

(35)

18

Undeca-3,4-diene-2,10-dione, 5,6,6-trimethyl-

Unsaturated ketone

New Compound

19

Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 2-methylphenyl ester

Cycloester

New Compound

20

Imidazole-4-carboxamide

Aromatic hetero diazole

Anticancer

(36)

21

3-(Methylthio)hexyl butanoate

Thioester

New Compound

22

cis-10-Nonadecenoic acid

Fatty acid

Membrane stabilizer

23

Hexadecanoic acid, 2-methyl-

Fatty Acyl

Membrane stabilizer

24

Tricosanoic acid, methyl ester

Fatty Acyl

Membrane stabilizer

25

Octadecanoic acid, 17-oxo-, methyl ester

Ester

New Compound

26

Hexadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-, methyl ester

Fatty Acyl

Membrane stabilizer

27

5-Heptenoic acid, methyl ester,

Fatty Acyl

Membrane stabilizer

28

2,5-Di-(4-nitrophenyl)-tetrazol

Tetrazole

New Compound

29

6-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester,(Z)-

Fatty Acyl

Membrane stabilizer

30

2H-Pyrimido[1,2-a]pyrimidine, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-1-methyl-

Triazine

New compound

31

Eicosane

Alkane

Heaing and Lightening

(37)

32

Imidazole-4-carboxylic acid, 5-amino-2-methyl-, ethyl ester 

Diazole ester

Anti-Alzheimer

(38)

33

4a.alpha.,4b.beta.-Gibbane-1.alpha.,10.beta.-dicarboxylic acid, 4a-formyl-7-hydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylene-, dimethyl ester 

Terpenoid ester

New Compound

34

1,2,3-Triphenyl-3-methyl-cyclopropene

cycloalkene

New Compound

35

N-Acetyl-d,l-norleucenine

Monoterpene indole alkaloid

Vertigo

(39)

36

3H-Pyrazol-3-one, 4,4'-azobis[2,4-dihydro-2,5-diphenyl]

Diazole ketone

anti-tubercular, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, anticancer, anti-viral, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, and neuroprotective

(40)

37

7-Methoxy-9b-methyl-3-(2-methyl [1,3]dioxolan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4,5,9b hexahydrocyclopenta[a]naphthalene-3a-carbonitrile

Triicyclic aromatic compound

New Compound

38

Nonanoic acid

Fatty acid

Antitumor

(41)

39

4-phenyl-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine  

Heterobicylic

Anticancer

(42)

40

2-Furancarboxamide, N-(1,4,6-trimethyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl)-

Heterotetrazole

New Compound

41

Octadec-9-enoic acid

Fatty acid

Surfactant

(43)

42

Ethyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3-Methylindole-2-carboxylate

Bicyclic ester

New Compound

These pharmacological activities ascribed to a particular plant extract implies that interference may likely be experienced. Thus, to reduce or prevent interference, separation of the components into the various parts will be necessary. HPLC is a separation technique, use to set-apart non-volatile components of the plant extract and has the advantage of being robust and rugged. The nature of the HPLC allows it to identify the compounds in the crude extract of PEFF by comparing the retention time and peak area with standards. The standard utilized in this study are listed in Table 2 and comparing it with peaks and retention time avail the compound in the Table 2. The prominent compounds include pyrrogallol (18.64%), ferulic acid (13.71%), ellagic acid (12.88%), salicylic acid (10.83%), rabilinidine (10.50%), cresol (9.67%), coumarin (6.58%), naringin (6.48%) and isoflavone (5.93%).

Some of the reported activities of the PEFF could be due to the phytochemicals identified. Salicylic acid-Analgesic; ephedrine-antihypertensive, cresol-anti-proliferative, ellagic acid-antiproliferative, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, narigin-anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative, coumaric acid-anti-inflammatory, isoflavone-antiproliferative, ferulic acid-antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, pyrrogallol-antioxidant and antibacterial and naringenin-antioxidant, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory.

GC-MS analysis was used in the identification of volatile compounds in the extract of PEFF. 3-aminopyrrolidine (14.52%), octadec-9-enoic acid (67.78%)  and 3-methylindole-2-carboxylic acid-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroethylester (16.89%) were prominent among the identified compounds.

Studies carried out by He and co-workers have reported high level of fatty acids in both the fruits and leaves (19). Most of the compounds identified are grouped into fatty acids, esters, alkaloids and terpenes, N-acetyl d,l-norleucenine enantiomer is use in the treatment of vertigo in part of Europe (44). Lochneridine belongs to the group of monoterpene indole alkaoids that  have been identified in Catharanthus roseus and Tabernaemontana davaricata, they are known to have antimalarial, antiarrhythmic and anticancer properties (45), The presence of these compounds in the vines of PEFF with documented similar or different pharmacological activities, implies that the effect observed could be due to synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction. Bringing to the fore the need for further studies to isolate and characterize the individual compounds in the vines. These will further aid the identification of activities that were antagonized.

Conclusion

The vines of PEFF have been shown from this study to contain different classes of phytochemicals, which were further confirmed in the HPLC analysis, sub-divided into ephedrine, ribalinidine, cresol, ellagic acid, naringin, coumaric acid, isoflavone, ferulic acid, pyrogallol, naringenin and salicylic acid and subsequently quantified. The GC-MS analysis provided the avenue for the individual phytochemicals to be identified and linked to some of the ethnomedicinal uses.

Declarations

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to thank Head of Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ilorin and Dr. David Ogochukwu of Docchy Laboratory and Environmental Service for running the GC-MS and HPLC analysis for the methanol extract of PEFF.

Ethics Statement

Not relevant

Data Availability

The unpublished data is available upon request to the corresponding author.

Funding Information

Not applicable.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicting interest.

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Citation
ACS Style

Odion, E.E., Nwigwe, G.N., Ambe, D.A., Nnamani, M.N., Osigwe, C.C., Odiete, E.C., Iyanyi, L.U. Phytochemical Profiling of Passiflora edulis Vines. Sciences of Phytochemistry 2024, 3(1), 11-19.

AMA Style

Odion, EE, Nwigwe, GN, Ambe, DA, Nnamani, MN, Osigwe, CC, Odiete, EC, Iyanyi, LU. Phytochemical Profiling of Passiflora edulis Vines. Sciences of Phytochemistry. 2024; 3(1):11-19.

Chicago Style

Emmanuel Eimiomodebheki Odion, Godfavour Nzubechukwu Nwigwe, Daniel Akpe-Efiak Ambe, Monica Nnenna Nnamani, Chinyelu Clementina Osigwe, Eravweroso Congrat Odiete, Loveth Uchechukwu Iyanyi. 2024. "Phytochemical Profiling of Passiflora edulis Vines" Sciences of Phytochemistry 3, no. 1:11-19.

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