Sciences of Pharmacy

Sciences of Pharmacy

Articles Published in Volume 1 Issue 1

Amelia Soyata, Kenti Kenti, Meylani Sutoro, Novaliana Devianti Sagita. Impact of Preparation Method in Co-Amorphous System. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2022; 1(1):41-49.

Abstract: The co-amorphous solid dispersion system is one of the methods to improve the physicochemical characteristics and stability of a drug. With the appropriate material ratio and preparation method, a co-amorphous solid dispersion system can increase the bioavailability of the drug due to an increase in Show more...
Abstract: The co-amorphous solid dispersion system is one of the methods to improve the physicochemical characteristics and stability of a drug. With the appropriate material ratio and preparation method, a co-amorphous solid dispersion system can increase the bioavailability of the drug due to an increase in solubility. In addition, the co-amorphous system will maintain its amorphous shape longer than a single compound. However, using unsuitable materials and methods for co-amorphous fabrication will precipitate them and diminish their bioavailability. As a result, exploring the fundamentals of co-amorphous manufacturing methods is essential. This article discusses the physicochemical properties and solubility of co-amorphous mixtures prepared by solvent evaporation, milling, and quenching methods. Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar literature were obtained using the keywords 'co-amorphous preparation', 'co-amorphous method', 'solvent evaporation for co-amorphous preparation', 'milling methods for co-amorphous preparation', and 'quenching method for co-amorphous preparation'. We excluded literature whose application was not in the medical field. Based on the findings, the co-amorphous preparation methods have their respective advantages and disadvantages. Solvent evaporation can only be used on a small scale. Milling techniques are laborious and time-consuming but have a large yield and less chemical destruction, while the quenching method is only intended for thermostable compounds. Show less...

Co-amorphous co-amorphous method solvent evaporation method milling techniques quenching methods

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Mayang Kusuma Dewi, Reza Pratama, Mia Arifka, Anis Yohana Chaerunisaa. Quality By Design: Approach to Analytical Method Validation. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2022; 1(1):33-40.

Abstract: A pharmaceutical industry is highly regulated by a quality policy in its management. The principles of Quality by Design (QbD) must be applied to ensure the development of pragmatic and systematic methods while managing the risks associated with analytical methods. Quality by Design (QbD) is a scien Show more...
Abstract: A pharmaceutical industry is highly regulated by a quality policy in its management. The principles of Quality by Design (QbD) must be applied to ensure the development of pragmatic and systematic methods while managing the risks associated with analytical methods. Quality by Design (QbD) is a scientific way to develop easy and robust analytical techniques for critical analysis. Quality by Design (QbD) is a systematic approach to product or method development that starts with predetermined goals and uses a science and risk management approach to achieve product and method understanding. The concept of risk management is deeply integrated into the quality assurance system to ensure pharmaceutical quality and patient safety. In the context of quality control, detecting impurities in raw materials and finished products is a major concern. Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) aims to achieve quality in measurement. The main objectives are to explain the various steps involved in developing a method using a Quality by Design (QbD) approach for the development of analytical methods and to explain the implementation of Quality by Design (QbD) in the validation of analytical procedures. The advantages of applying Quality by Design (QbD) principles to analytical techniques include finding and minimizing sources of variability that could lead to poor method robustness and ensuring that the method meets the desired performance requirements over the product and method life cycle. The Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) strategy is increasingly being adopted as it allows an early understanding of the method and guarantees the determination of a wider set of experimental conditions. Show less...

Risk analysis quality by design (QbD) analytical method validation

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Meylani Sutoro, Yuniarti Falya, Restu Harisma Damayanti. Method and Critical Aspect of Semisolid Mixing. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2022; 1(1):20-32.

Abstract: Semisolid preparations are widely used to deliver drugs through the skin, cornea, rectal tissue, nasal mucosa, vagina, buccal tissue, urethral membrane, and outer ear lining. They can prevent the first-pass metabolism, reduce side effects, provide immediate local effects, and increase patient compli Show more...
Abstract: Semisolid preparations are widely used to deliver drugs through the skin, cornea, rectal tissue, nasal mucosa, vagina, buccal tissue, urethral membrane, and outer ear lining. They can prevent the first-pass metabolism, reduce side effects, provide immediate local effects, and increase patient compliance. However, an improper manufacturing process will produce a system with bad characteristics, one of which is the mixing process. Several conditions that need to be considered, such as vacuum, temperature, humidity, pressure, stirring speed, stirring time, shear stress, the volume of the mixture, and type of impeller, can affect the consistency, size, and dispersion of particle size, homogeneity, porosity, reactivity, and other characteristics that affect the quality of the semisolid system. Therefore, this article discusses the critical aspects of semisolid mixing, the types, principles, and specifications of several mixer tools and impellers, and how they affect the characteristics of semisolid systems. This review concludes that each type of semisolid preparation requires an impeller and mixer with the specifications and mixing conditions that suit the needs in maintaining the stability and quality of the semisolid system. Show less...

Semisolid mixer critical aspect of semisolid mixing semisolid manufacturing

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Maria Elvina Tresia Butar-butar, Anis Yohana Chaerunisaa. Thermal Behavior of Polymers in Solid-State . Sciences of Pharmacy. 2022; 1(1):8-19.

Abstract: A variety of potential polymers with chemical and physical stability characteristics and abundant availability lead to the rapid application of polymers in various fields. One of the crucial things that are crucial to be discussed from such polymers is the characteristic of thermal behavior. Each ty Show more...
Abstract: A variety of potential polymers with chemical and physical stability characteristics and abundant availability lead to the rapid application of polymers in various fields. One of the crucial things that are crucial to be discussed from such polymers is the characteristic of thermal behavior. Each type of polymer such as natural and synthetic has different thermal characteristics, including Tc, Tg, Tm, and Td which can be the determining factor of polymer selection of processing and application temperature. The thermal properties will also affect molecular interactions, physical stability in manufacturing, distribution, and storage. Therefore, in this article will appoint a study on the thermal characteristics of natural and synthetic polymers, the effect of modification on the thermal properties of polymers, efforts to increase the stability of thermal, and polymer applications in the field of pharmaceutical technology. Show less...

Polymers thermal behavior thermal stability physical characteristics

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Nida Adlina Fadhila, Sriwidodo Sriwidodo, Anis Yohana Chaerunisaa. Instant Granules of Mangosteen Peel (Garcinia Mangostana L.) Ethanol Extract as Antioxidants. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2022; 1(1):1-7.

Abstract: Free radicals in the air can trigger dangerous diseases, such as cancer and premature aging. To avoid this, antioxidant compounds are needed to donate electrons to free radicals, causing them to become more stable. A powerful antioxidant can be found in nature, including the mangosteen peel. This st Show more...
Abstract: Free radicals in the air can trigger dangerous diseases, such as cancer and premature aging. To avoid this, antioxidant compounds are needed to donate electrons to free radicals, causing them to become more stable. A powerful antioxidant can be found in nature, including the mangosteen peel. This study aimed to find the best instant granule preparation formula from mangosteen peel extract (MPE) that can be practically consumed and the antioxidant stability during preparation. The wet granulation method was used to make instant granules, which have four formulas with varying amounts of xanthan gum as a suspending agent and maltodextrin as a solubility enhancer. The antioxidant activity was examined using the DPPH method. Based on the findings, formula 4 had the best properties with a drying shrinkage of 1.80%, a flow rate of 11.54 ± 1.56 g/s, repose's angle of 29.112 ± 0.45ᵒ, carr index of 14.043 ± 1.9%, and dispersion rate of 0.164 g/s. There is no residue in the solution. The shape and taste of this formula were most acceptable. The antioxidant activity of the extract and instant granules was not significantly different, with the IC50 of 34.64 μg/ml and 44.12 μg/ml, respectively. Based on the test result, it can be concluded that formula 4 with a concentration of xanthan gum 1% and 20% maltodextrin is a potent antioxidant supplement. Show less...

Free radicals antioxidants DPPH mangosteen peel extract instant granule

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