Sciences of Pharmacy

Sciences of Pharmacy

Articles Published in Volume 2 Issue 4

https://doi.org/10.58920/sciphar0204

Ayu Wulandari, Dian Rahmawati, Utami Islamiati, Ficanata Adiguna Toding, Muflihatun Muflihatun. Risk Factors and Adverse Drug Reactions in HIV/AIDS Patients at Undata Regional Hospital in Palu City, Indonesia. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2023; 2(4):249-255.

Abstract: AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a clinical manifestation of the late stage of HIV infection (human immunodeficiency virus). This virus attacks CD4 cells in the immune system which is an important component in fighting infection. Without treatment, HIV can gradually destroy the immune sy Show more...
Abstract: AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a clinical manifestation of the late stage of HIV infection (human immunodeficiency virus). This virus attacks CD4 cells in the immune system which is an important component in fighting infection. Without treatment, HIV can gradually destroy the immune system and lead to AIDS. This study aims to identify risk factors and determine and identify the type of ADR in HIV/AIDS patients at Undata Regional General Hospital Palu, Central Sulawesi province. This study used a cross-sectional observation method with prospective data collection, with a sample of 126 patients. Based on the results of the study, patients with HIV/AIDS had the most risk factors, namely homosexuality as many as 73 patients (58%), at the clinical stage, namely stage 3, 50 patients (39%), on opportunistic infection data, namely candidiasis, 35 patients (33%), and the initial CD4 cell count of <200 cells/mm3 in 27 patients (21%). Patients with HIV/AIDS who experienced ADR using antiretroviral drugs were 255 out of a total of 126 patients. Types of ADR that occur in HIV/AIDS patients include fever (6%), dizziness (47%), nausea (12%), vomiting (7%), insomnia (15%), easy hunger (1%), Hb low (1%), weakness (1%), rash (9%), headache (1%). Overall, these findings contribute valuable information for developing targeted interventions and improving the overall care and outcomes for individuals with HIV/AIDS. Show less...

Risk factors HIV/AIDS Adverse drug reaction Undata General Hospital

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Indah Kurnia Utami, Niluh Puspita Dewi, Syafika Alaydrus, Magfirah Magfirah, Musfirah Musfirah, Nur Azizah. Potential Drug Interactions in Inpatients with Chronic Kidney Disease at Undata Hospital, Palu City, Indonesia. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2023; 2(4):243-248.

Abstract: Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) often receive a combination of medications, which can have beneficial effects but may also lead to ineffective treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze potential drug interactions in CKD patients admitted to the Seroja ward at Undata Hospital i Show more...
Abstract: Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) often receive a combination of medications, which can have beneficial effects but may also lead to ineffective treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze potential drug interactions in CKD patients admitted to the Seroja ward at Undata Hospital in Palu, Central Sulawesi Province, during the year 2022. The study was conducted prospectively from July 20 to September 18, 2022, involving a total of 40 patients. The research utilized a non-experimental observational design, and the results were presented descriptively using purposive sampling based on predefined criteria. Drug interaction were screened using the Drug Interaction Checker tool. The study revealed that among CKD patients, a higher percentage of men (55%) than women (44%) were observed, with the highest percentage in the age group of 46–55 (27.5%). The most commonly drug group used was loop diuretics and furosemide (18.75%). The most significant potential drug interactions were pharmacodynamic interactions (12.5% in 5 cases) with minor significance, followed by pharmacokinetic interactions (2.5% in 1 case) with major significance, particularly in the use of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and statins. Based on the findings, minor interaction cases do not always yield negative outcomes. In certain clinical practices, these interactions are intentionally utilized to achieve favorable results. Instances of major interactions with drug use should be avoided, and alternative drugs should be considered. In urgent situations where the drug is necessary, restrictions can be applied, and close monitoring of the patient's clinical status is vital. Show less...

Drug related problem Drug interaction Chronic kidney disease Pharmacodynamic drug interaction Pharmacokinetics drug interaction

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Reza Pratama, Kholifa Nisya Melinda, Soni Muhsinin. Viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Effervescent Granules Prepared via Wet Granulation Method: In Vitro Study. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2023; 2(4):232-242.

Abstract: Lactobacillus acidophilus, a strain of lactic acid bacteria widely used as a probiotic microorganism, has been extensively employed in developing probiotic products including in effervescent granules. This study's objectives were to ensure that the resultant granules possessed the desired physical a Show more...
Abstract: Lactobacillus acidophilus, a strain of lactic acid bacteria widely used as a probiotic microorganism, has been extensively employed in developing probiotic products including in effervescent granules. This study's objectives were to ensure that the resultant granules possessed the desired physical attributes and retained the requisite viability of lactic acid bacteria. A wet granulation method was used. The formula was physically evaluated and analyzed using Design Expert software, followed by gram staining and bacterial harvesting. Gram staining verification demonstrated the gram-positive nature of the pure L. acidophilus bacterial isolates, as evidenced by their consistent purple coloration and characteristic basil shape. Evaluation of physical properties revealed organoleptic attributes such as granular shape, white coloration devoid of odor, flow rate of 1.497 g/sec, an angle of repose at 40.75o, compressibility of 11.45%, drying loss of 0.62%, and a foam height of 3.075 cm, consistently meeting the stipulated criteria. Furthermore, formula I, II, and III preserved L. acidophilus bacteria after being converted into effervescent granules, as evidenced by viable lactic acid bacteria counts, with formula I (412.5 x 101 cfu/g), formula II (422.7 x 101 cfu/g), and formula III (highest at 522.7 x 101 cfu/g). The formula I emerges as the most favorable effervescent granules containing L. acidophilus 3%; polyvinylpyrrolidone 3%; citric acid 0.3%; tartaric acid 49.7%; sodium bicarbonate 25% and lactose as filler. Based on the finding, this probiotic effervescent granules has the potential to be developed as a daily supplement, especially for flora normal stabilization. Show less...

Lactobacillus acidophilus Probiotic effervescent granules Citric acid Tartaric acid Probiotic viability Lactic acid bacteria Probiotic preparation

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Rahmatul Qodriah, Shirly Kumala, Syamsudin Syamsudin, Nancy Dewi Yuliana, Partomuan Simanjuntak, Ervina Putri. Identification of Antioxidant Compounds in Fig Leaves (Ficus carica L) Fractions Using LC-MS/MS. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2023; 2(4):225-231.

Abstract: The fig plant (Ficus carica L.) is one of the most popular ficus genera and is spread in tropical and sub-tropical regions throughout the world. Fig leaves have potential as antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to identify antioxidant compounds in the ethanol extract of fig leaves of the Iraq Show more...
Abstract: The fig plant (Ficus carica L.) is one of the most popular ficus genera and is spread in tropical and sub-tropical regions throughout the world. Fig leaves have potential as antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to identify antioxidant compounds in the ethanol extract of fig leaves of the Iraqi variety. The research involved preparing extracts by maceration using 96% ethanol, 70% ethanol, and 50% ethanol, testing antioxidant activity and identifying their chemical structures using LC-MS/MS. Based on the results of the antioxidant activity test using the DPPH free radical scavenging method, it was shown that the 50% ethanol extract of fig leaves had a very strong antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 23.36 µg/mL. The results of identification with LC-MS/MS, it is estimated that the compound that has the potential as an antioxidant in the fig leaves of the Iraqi variety is the kaempferol compound. Show less...

Fig leaves Ficus carica L Antioxidant DPPH LC-MS-MS

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Usman Adamu Garkuwa, Malajiya Ibrahim Alhaji Saleh, Abdulwahab Alhassan, Mohammed Umaru Kawu. Alpha Lipoic Acid Improves Memory and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Diabetic Wistar Rats. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2023; 2(4):216-224.

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and oxidative stress are among the leading causes of memory loss and dementia. Dietary supplements have been used to manage many disorders. This research aimed to determine the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on memory and oxidative stress in diabetic Wistar rats. 30 rats we Show more...
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and oxidative stress are among the leading causes of memory loss and dementia. Dietary supplements have been used to manage many disorders. This research aimed to determine the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on memory and oxidative stress in diabetic Wistar rats. 30 rats were grouped into six (5 in each). Diabetes was induced using a high-fat diet followed by a single low dose of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Group I served as normoglycemic control (1 mL/kg normal saline), while groups II, III, IV, V, and VI were diabetic and received 1 mL/kg at normal saline, glibenclamide at 1 mg/kg, ALA at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg respectively for 21 days. Blood glucose level was determined before and after treatment. Long-term and recognition memory were determined using novel object recognition tasks (NORT). Brain tissues were used for antioxidant enzymes. The result obtained showed that at 400 mg/kg after 21 days of administration of ALA, long-term memory and recognition ability were increased significantly (45.65±3.43s and 83.77±1.49%) compared to the diabetic control (26.24 ± 3.81s and 65.09 ± 2.52%) respectively. Antioxidant enzymes’ levels were increased significantly in the group VI including catalase (1.76±0.02 IU/mg) superoxide dismutase (1.02±0.71 IU/mg) and reduced glutathione (91.08±3.49 µg/mL) compared to the diabetic control group (0.84±0.03 IU/mg, 0.49±0.03 IU/mg and 51.64±0.87 µg/mL) respectively. The findings suggest that ALA has antioxidant activity and improves memory in diabetic Wistar rats. Show less...

Diabetes-associated memory loss, Alpha lipoid acid ALA antioxidant effect Hyperglycemia-related problem

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