Sciences of Pharmacy

Sciences of Pharmacy

Articles Published in Volume 3 Issue 1

https://doi.org/10.58920/sciphar0301

Ivan Sergeevich Ivanov, Diana Alexandrovna Akhmedova, Yulia Anatolyevna Koroleva, Denis Olegovich Shatalov. Sterility of Ophthalmic Solutions as a Factor in the Evolution of Primary Packaging for Eye Drops: A Literature Review. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2024; 3(1):39-49.

Abstract: Preservatives in eye drops, while not always necessary, can lead to undesirable effects. Developing preservative-free solutions demands special measures for sterility, utilizing multidose or monodose primary packaging. This review explores the merits and drawbacks of these packaging types. A literat Show more...
Abstract: Preservatives in eye drops, while not always necessary, can lead to undesirable effects. Developing preservative-free solutions demands special measures for sterility, utilizing multidose or monodose primary packaging. This review explores the merits and drawbacks of these packaging types. A literature search on PubMed, Google Scholar, and EMBASE until December 2023, using MESH terms, yielded 28 studies on multidose ampoules and 24 on monodose packaging. Heterogeneous data revealed advantages and disadvantages concerning patient use and manufacturing. Chronologically presenting the development of eye drop packaging, this study finds Droptainer® simple but unable to maintain sterility. Comod®, 3K®, ABAK®, Novelia®, and Ophthalmic Squeeze Dispenser show high sterility probability, with Comod® and ABAK® having a contamination risk. Novelia® excels with long-term sterility and better control. Ophthalmic Squeeze Dispenser, FDA-approved, boasts a smaller carbon footprint. Unit-dose systems preserve sterility and offer design flexibility. Proposing an alternative, blister technology maintains sterility, is convenient and safe, and holds promise for recycling. This comprehensive assessment aids in understanding the evolving landscape of eye drop packaging, emphasizing the importance of sterility, convenience, and environmental impact. Show less...

Sterility Preservative Multidose ampoule Unit-dose Blow-fill-seal Dosepan blister

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Ayu Wulandari, Gita Chintya, Muthmainah Tuldjanah, Rezky Yanuarty. Characterizations of Swelling Granule of Clove Leaf (Syzygium aromaticum L.) Ethanol Extract. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2024; 3(1):34-38.

Abstract: Cloves, scientifically known as Syzygium aromaticum L., hold promise as a potential antiulcer remedy due to their rich composition of compounds, including high levels of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate, and gallic acid. To improve bioavailability in the gastric environment, this Show more...
Abstract: Cloves, scientifically known as Syzygium aromaticum L., hold promise as a potential antiulcer remedy due to their rich composition of compounds, including high levels of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate, and gallic acid. To improve bioavailability in the gastric environment, this study focuses on optimizing and evaluating a swelling granule system derived from clove leaf extract. The granules were produced using wet granulation with Carbopol, HPMC, and their combination as polymer matrices. Results indicated favorable properties in the swelling granules, with the optimal composition of 210 mg Carbopol, 36 mg PVP, and 404 mg Avicel pH 101. These granules exhibited a uniform particle size distribution, with 90.1% below 149 µm and 9.9% distributed across mesh numbers 100, 80, and 40. The formula with Carbopol polymer showed superior flow rate, compressibility, and swelling capacity compared to other formulations. The interaction between Carbopol's C=O groups and HPMC's hydroxyl groups significantly influenced parameters, especially swelling capacity. Thus, when combining polymers, potential chemical or physical reactions should be considered. The wet granulation process effectively preserved secondary metabolite levels from clove leaf. Further tests are recommended to evaluate the granulation's effectiveness as a delivery system for clove leaf extract. Show less...

Clove leaves Mucoadhesive granules Gastroretentive

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Niluh Puspita Dewi, Syafika Alaydrus, Widya Ayu Lestari, Magfirah Magfirah, Indah Kurnia Utami, Nani Astria Polontalo, Muthmainah Tuldjanah. Suspension of Sonchus arvensis L Leaves Ethanolic Extract Affects Blood Creatinine and Urea Levels in Streptozotocin-Induced Wistar Male Rats. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2024; 3(1):18-23.

Abstract: The study focused on analyzing the secondary metabolites present in the ethanol extract of Sonchus arvensis L. leaves (SALEE) and their impact on creatinine and urea levels when administered in suspension form at different doses. Phytochemical screening of SALEE identified alkaloids, flavonoids, phe Show more...
Abstract: The study focused on analyzing the secondary metabolites present in the ethanol extract of Sonchus arvensis L. leaves (SALEE) and their impact on creatinine and urea levels when administered in suspension form at different doses. Phytochemical screening of SALEE identified alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, and tannins. In the experiment, twenty-five white male rats were divided into five groups: a healthy control group (Group I), a negative control group (Group II), and three test groups (Groups III, IV, and V) receiving SALEE at doses of 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg BW, respectively. After inducing diabetes with streptozotocin and a 21-day follow-up period, creatinine and urea levels were assessed. The results demonstrated that SALEE administration significantly reduced creatinine levels and increased urea levels. Notably, the 200 mg/kg BW dose of SALEE exhibited a consistent and long-term effect. It was observed that blood urea levels fluctuated even in healthy and negative control groups during the 21-day observation period. In the group receiving the highest dose of SALEE (400 mg/kg BW), blood urea levels increased significantly on days 14 and 21, indicating a potential increase in the rats' appetite rather than renal function failure. Overall, the findings suggest that SALEE has promising potential to regulate creatinine and urea levels in the blood of individuals with diabetes, highlighting its potential for therapeutic and supplemental use. Show less...

Sonchus arvensis L Serum creatinine Blood urea Failured renal function Diabetic nephropathy Extract suspension

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Md. Khokon Miah Akanda, Razia Sultana, Md. Masud Rana, Md. Alamgir Hossain, S. M. Abdul Barik, Md. Rafiul Islam, Md. Nazmul Islam, G.M. Masud Parvez. Prevalence, Causes, and Management Strategies of Fungal Diseases in Northern Regions of Bangladesh. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2024; 3(1):24-33.

Abstract: In Bangladesh, fungus-related skin diseases are highly prevalent. Until this result began, there was no research in Bangladesh to find the cause and management strategies for fungal infection, but there is still no complete research on it. This survey aimed to evaluate the incidence, etiology, and t Show more...
Abstract: In Bangladesh, fungus-related skin diseases are highly prevalent. Until this result began, there was no research in Bangladesh to find the cause and management strategies for fungal infection, but there is still no complete research on it. This survey aimed to evaluate the incidence, etiology, and therapeutic alternatives for various fungal ailments in Bangladesh. The research was carried out in Rajshahi from January to June 2019 by the Pharmacy Department of Varendra University. A compilation of 489 patient data was obtained throughout the investigation using a semi-structured questionnaire. The participants' ages vary from three months to seventy years; 327 are male, and 162 are female. The most prevalent skin conditions among the patients are as follows: ringworm (11.25%), skin infections affecting the ear, nose, fingers, and uterus (11.04%), acne (8.19%), allergy (9.82%), dandruff (5.11%), dermatitis (9.00%), eczema (5.73%), and scabies (7.18%). Student individuals comprise 49.28% of the patients, day workers 16.56%, housewives 16.36%, and employed 14.31%. Patients are housed in 53.17 percent concrete houses, 26.5 percent huts, and 26.18% semi-structures. Patients wash their clothing with tap water at a rate of 52%, followed by tube well water at 21.27%, pond water at 20.45%, and river water at 5.52%. It is evident from this study that fungal diseases affect individuals of all ages, including men and women. An adverse finding of the research was that over forty percent of patients do not receive accurate instructions from their physicians, which raises the risk of drug resistance and further contamination. Show less...

Fungal disease Fungal disease prevalence Fungal disease cause Fungal disease management.

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Fidelia Chikaodili Okoben, InnocentMary Ifedibaluchukwu Ejiofor, Ikechukwu Sonn Mbagwu, Daniel Lotanna Ajaghaku, Fredrick Chinedu Anowi. Effects of Methanolic Leaf Extract and Fractions of Irvingia Gabonensis on Hematological Parameters in Wistar Rats with Splenomegaly. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2024; 3(1):9-17.

Abstract: Splenomegaly is a medical condition characterized by an enlargement of the spleen, an organ located in the upper left part of the abdomen, beneath the ribcage. The spleen plays various essential roles in the body, including filtering blood, removing old or damaged blood cells, and helping the immune Show more...
Abstract: Splenomegaly is a medical condition characterized by an enlargement of the spleen, an organ located in the upper left part of the abdomen, beneath the ribcage. The spleen plays various essential roles in the body, including filtering blood, removing old or damaged blood cells, and helping the immune system by producing and storing immune cells. Splenomegaly causes negative haematological effects. It is very common in Africa and Asia. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of methanol leaf extract and fractions of Irvingia gabonensis on haematological parameters in splenomegaly-induced Wistar rats. Extraction and fractionation of the plant were carried out through standard procedure using methanol, hexane, butanol and ethyl acetate. A qualitative phytochemical evaluation of the plant was done. The effects of the extract and fractions of Irvingia gabonensis were investigated using a rat model. The presence of various phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and tannins was observed in the extract and fractions of the plant. The methanolic extract and ethylacetate fraction significantly caused the normalization of PCV, HB, and RBC post-treatment. The findings from this study suggest that Irvingia gabonensis could be researched further for the management of splenomegaly and also the isolation of phytochemicals responsible for these effects. Show less...

Splenomegaly Irvingia gabonensis Haematology

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Sondang Khairani, Hesty Utami Ramadaniati, Prih Sarnianto, Erna Kristin, Yusi Anggriani. Quality and Potency of Government-subsidized Antibiotics in Hospitals Across Jakarta, Indonesia. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2024; 3(1):1-8.

Abstract: Several pharmaceutical companies have long complained that the price of medicines that win the e-catalogue tender is too low, in some cases even below the cost of production. However, it should not be a concern that only pharmaceutical products with regulation of Indonesian food and drug (BPOM) dist Show more...
Abstract: Several pharmaceutical companies have long complained that the price of medicines that win the e-catalogue tender is too low, in some cases even below the cost of production. However, it should not be a concern that only pharmaceutical products with regulation of Indonesian food and drug (BPOM) distribution licenses are eligible for the price tender, as they are of good quality. This study aims to determine the quality and potency of three antibiotic drugs based on their highest utilization (DU 90%) in pneumonia patients at two hospitals, A (ceftriaxone, azithromycin tablet) and B (ceftriaxone, levofloxacin infusion) compared to brand name. The quality of the samples was evaluated following the Indonesian Pharmacopoeia 6th Edition (FI-VI). Antibiotic potency was assessed using the Plate-Cylinder Method with K. pneumonia from human and S. pneumonia ATCC 10015 as the test bacteria evaluated following CLSI. All samples meet the criteria of FI-VI antibiotic content, weight uniformity, dissolution. Antibiotic potency all samples test S.pneumonia and K.pneumonia were sensitive but ceftriaxone test with K.pneumonia was resistance. All antibiotic tablets and injections studied met the requirements of the Indonesian Pharmacopoeia Edition 6 for active medicinal ingredient content, dosage weight uniformity, and dissolution. All drugs from hospitals (INN) have lower antibiotic potency than branded drugs. This highlight the importance of conducting microbiological testing on antibiotic preparations. Show less...

Quality of drug Potency of antibiotic Ceftriaxone Levofloxacin Azithromycin

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