Sciences of Pharmacy

Sciences of Pharmacy

Articles Published in Volume 2 Issue 3

https://doi.org/10.58920/sciphar0203

Adilah Marwa, Nuraini Ekawati, Hardian Hardian. Efficacy of Sunscreen Gel Infused with Giant Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) Head Extract. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2023; 2(3):122-134.

Abstract: Excessive sunlight exposure can lead to various minor skin disorders, including sunburn and the development of chronic skin malignancies. One effective preventive measure against these adverse effects is the use of sunscreen. Sunscreen can be derived from natural sources, such as the astaxanthin com Show more...
Abstract: Excessive sunlight exposure can lead to various minor skin disorders, including sunburn and the development of chronic skin malignancies. One effective preventive measure against these adverse effects is the use of sunscreen. Sunscreen can be derived from natural sources, such as the astaxanthin compound in giant tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon). This study aimed to formulate a sunscreen gel from giant tiger prawn head extract that meets good physical gel standards. Additionally, the study sought to determine the sun protection factor (SPF), erythema transmission level (%TE), and pigmentation transmission level (%TP) through in-vitro testing. The extraction process involved using coconut oil as a solvent using the maceration method. The resultant extract was then evaluated for SPF, %TE, and %TP values and subsequently formulated into gel variants with extract concentrations ranging from 1% to 10%. The findings of this investigation revealed that the giant tiger prawn head extract exhibited SPF, %TE, and %TP values of 8.0±0.11, 18.8±0.25%, and 21.7±0.73%, respectively, categorizing it as providing maximum protection, facilitating fast tanning, and acting as a sunblock. The gel formula containing 8% giant tiger prawn head extract demonstrated the highest sunscreen potential. In conclusion, this study highlights the promising potential of giant tiger prawn head extract as a natural sunscreen ingredient and identifies the optimal gel formula for effective sun protection. Show less...

Giant tiger prawn Penaeus Monodon sunscreen gel erythema transmission pigmentation transmission astaxanthin UV protection

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Tunde Ayobami Owolabi, Emmanuel Amodu, James Danga. Quality Control of Herbal Drug (Paxherbal Bitter Tea) Via Thin-Layer Chromatography and Phytoconstituent Analysis. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2023; 2(3):211-215.

Abstract: The effectiveness of any herbal medication depends on the presence or absence of pharmacologically active phytocompounds. These ingredients are significantly affected by the quality control system espoused during and after manufacturing processes and the operation of such pharmaceuticals. Thin-layer Show more...
Abstract: The effectiveness of any herbal medication depends on the presence or absence of pharmacologically active phytocompounds. These ingredients are significantly affected by the quality control system espoused during and after manufacturing processes and the operation of such pharmaceuticals. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a quality control parameter suitable to identify and codify substances predicated on their distinctiveness and uniformity, giving an identity for such substances. Paxherbal Bitter Tea is a polyherbal medicine harnessed as an anti-diabetes medicine. This study assessed the distinguishable phytoconstituents present and evolved attribute profiles (TLC) for the herbal (Paxherbal Bitter Tea) to serve as a quality control check during manufacturing for consistency and market identity. Qualitative phytochemical and chromatographic assays were carried out employing standard methodologies. The qualitative test revealed the presence of saponin, steroids, reducing sugar, cardiac glycoside, and terpenoids, and the finger-print chromatograms after progression with n-hexane: ethyl acetate (9:1) flaunted three dissimilar elements under ultraviolet light at 365 nm and five spots, when dotted with 20% methanolic sulphuric acid under visible light. In this study, we developed an identity profile for Paxherbal Bitter Tea via its unique chemical biographies, which can be exercised in verifying the quality and consistency of the herbal product. Show less...

Bioactive constituents Quality control Paxherbal Bitter Tea Thin-layer chromatography

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Mus'ab Usman Abba, Sunusi Usman, Muslim Muhammad Ahmad, Albashir Tahir, Aminu Kura Umar. Exploring the Antiepileptic Potential of Amaranthus spinosus: An Experimental Study in Albino Mice. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2023; 2(3):204-210.

Abstract: About 60% of the world population relies on herbal medicine, and 80% depend almost entirely on it for their primary healthcare. Many of these herbs are rich in phytochemicals, thus valuable as potential sources of drugs. Amaranthus spinosus is a vegetable and ornamental plant used in African folklor Show more...
Abstract: About 60% of the world population relies on herbal medicine, and 80% depend almost entirely on it for their primary healthcare. Many of these herbs are rich in phytochemicals, thus valuable as potential sources of drugs. Amaranthus spinosus is a vegetable and ornamental plant used in African folklore to treat several illnesses. This study aimed to investigate the antiepileptic potential of the methanol leaf extract of Amaranthus spinosus in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical screening and acute toxicity studies were conducted using standard methods. Anticonvulsant studies were conducted using chemo-shock models (pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) - and strychnine (STR)-induced seizures) in mice. Phytochemical screening has revealed the presence of terpenoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. Additionally, the acute toxicity studies of the extract revealed that the extract is safe in mice at 2000 mg/kg. The extract at 400 and 800 mg/kg produced a significant (p<0.05) delay in the mean onset of seizures, decreased the duration of seizures induced by PTZ in a dose-dependent manner, and protected the mice. The extract showed insignificant protection against strychnine-induced seizures in mice. This could serve as a scientific basis for further evaluation of the plant’s potential in managing epilepsy, which can lead to the discovery of an effective antiepileptic agent with fewer side effects. Show less...

Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthaceae Antiepileptic Anticonvulsant Pentylenetetrazole Strychnine

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Subha Ranjan Das. Phytochemicals Modify the Action of Cancer Cells Mitochondrial Drug-Resistance Mechanism. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2023; 2(3):184-203.

Abstract: The genesis and evolution of cancer are known to be significantly influenced by mitochondria, and recent studies have indicated that mitochondrial modifications may potentially contribute to the emergence of treatment resistance. Additionally, drug-resistant cancer cells may also display modificatio Show more...
Abstract: The genesis and evolution of cancer are known to be significantly influenced by mitochondria, and recent studies have indicated that mitochondrial modifications may potentially contribute to the emergence of treatment resistance. Additionally, drug-resistant cancer cells may also display modifications in mitochondrial metabolism, such as changes in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are biological byproducts of mitochondrial respiration. These changes can alter the cell's sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs and contribute to drug resistance. The expression of specific genes or proteins that are crucial in the control of cell growth and survival may be altered by mitochondrial mutations, which may also contribute to medication resistance. Phytochemicals are naturally occurring, biologically active substances found in plants that have been demonstrated to offer a variety of health advantages, including anti-cancer effects. It has been demonstrated that phytochemicals target these altered mitochondrial pathways in cancer cells, increasing the potency of chemotherapy medications and overcoming drug resistance. For instance, it has been demonstrated that some phytochemicals, including curcumin, resveratrol, and quercetin, can block the function of mitochondrial membrane proteins that lead to drug resistance in cancer cells. Other phytochemicals, including berberine and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), have been demonstrated to directly interfere with mitochondrial activity, inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in cancer cells. Overall, the capacity of phytochemicals to modify the functioning of cancer cell mitochondrial drug-resistance systems is a viable strategy for the creation of novel anti-cancer treatments. Show less...

Mitochondria Drug resistance Phytochemicals Chemotherapy

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Hiteswar Saikia, Mustakim Ahmed, Anju L. Saikia, Daisy Phukan. Psychotropic Drugs Used in Psychiatry Outpatient Department: A Cross-Sectional Drug Utilization Research. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2023; 2(3):148-157.

Abstract: Mental and behavioral disorders are common around the world. Pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and psychosocial rehabilitation are three treatment components for these disorders. Drug therapy is an essential part of the comprehensive treatment of these diseases. Their use pattern in psychiatric practi Show more...
Abstract: Mental and behavioral disorders are common around the world. Pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and psychosocial rehabilitation are three treatment components for these disorders. Drug therapy is an essential part of the comprehensive treatment of these diseases. Their use pattern in psychiatric practice has changed dramatically in recent years. Mental disorders require long-term treatment. Therefore, it is crucial to study the prescribing practices of these groups of drugs. This study aims to assess drug use patterns using the WHO/INRUD Core Prescribing Indicators. Patients of both genders and ages with mental illness and prescription psychiatric drugs were evaluated from the outpatient department of the Psychiatry Unit (OPD). The prescription data were collected and analyzed using the indicators recommended by the WHO/INRUD. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel-2007. The percentage and average values of the variables were compared. A total of 655 prescriptions were analyzed. Male patients (54.96%) were more than women (45.04%). The morbidity profile included schizophrenia (37.86%), alcohol use disorder (18.78%), major depressive disorder (11.30%), anxiety disorder (10.23%), bipolar disorder (4.88%), and others (16.95%). The newer antipsychotic were the most commonly prescribed drugs (particularly olanzapine), along with a central anticholinergic (trihexyphenidyl) and a benzodiazepine (lorazepam). The percentage of drugs prescribed with generic names was 39.80%, and that of drugs prescribed by NLEM was 48.49%. The average number of drugs prescribed per prescription was 2.58. This study's Index of Rational Prescribing (IRDP) was 3.87, whereas the optimal score was 5. Prescriptions were complete, and principles of rational prescribing were followed, except for a low generic prescribing rate. Show less...

Drug utilization study Psychotropic drugs WHO prescribing indicators Rational drug prescribing

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Callista Andinie Mulyadi, Yahdiana Harahap, Hary Sakti Muliawan. Comparison of Microsampling and Conventional Sampling Techniques for Quantification of Warfarin in Blood Samples: A Systematic Review. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2023; 2(3):158-170.

Abstract: Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist (VKAs) anticoagulant associated with interindividual patients’ response to therapy, narrow therapeutic index, and serious adverse drug events. Monitoring ensures efficacy and safety by measuring drug concentration in the bloodstream, which demands blood or plasma Show more...
Abstract: Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist (VKAs) anticoagulant associated with interindividual patients’ response to therapy, narrow therapeutic index, and serious adverse drug events. Monitoring ensures efficacy and safety by measuring drug concentration in the bloodstream, which demands blood or plasma samples from patients through conventional sampling. Conventional sampling often requires invasive methods that may be uncomfortable for patients. Microsampling offers an opportunity to reduce the burden of multiple blood sampling on patients and simplifies the process of sample transportation and storage. This systematic review describes conventional and microsampling techniques for quantifying warfarin in human blood samples and the bioanalytical method employed to perform the analysis. Related studies (537) were screened from several databases and narrowed down into 12 eligible articles, which were then used to fulfill the purpose of this review in a narrative form. It is concluded that while there are still limited studies regarding the application of microsampling for warfarin quantification in patients, there has been evidence of comparable plasma and micro samples results, highlighting the potential for future development of routine monitoring using the microsampling technique. Show less...

Warfarin Microsampling Plasma LC-MS/MS HPLC

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Matheus prayoga claus, Masteria Yunovilsa Putra, Arry Yanuar. In Silico Studies of Drug Discovery and Design Against COVID-19 Focusing on ACE2 and Spike Protein Virus Receptors: A Systematic Review. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2023; 2(3):171-183.

Abstract: The emergence of COVID-19 has prompted researchers worldwide to focus on developing drugs that specifically target ACE2 receptors and SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein receptors. They have embraced an in-silico approach that employs virtual screening, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics to achieve this Show more...
Abstract: The emergence of COVID-19 has prompted researchers worldwide to focus on developing drugs that specifically target ACE2 receptors and SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein receptors. They have embraced an in-silico approach that employs virtual screening, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics to achieve this. This innovative method harnesses existing chemical and natural product databases to identify the most suitable ACE2 receptor blockers and SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein inhibitors. By following the PRISMA statement guidelines, a thorough literature search yielded 21 relevant articles, forming the basis of this systematic review. The review provides a comprehensive summary and detailed description of the methodologies, protocols, software tools, and noteworthy drug candidates identified in these studies. Additionally, it sheds light on the crucial molecular interactions by presenting an overview of the interacting residues elucidated in the reviewed articles, offering valuable insights for effective therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, the review presents thought-provoking suggestions for future research directions, aiming to inspire and guide advancements in drug development efforts. Show less...

Drug discovery ACE2 Spike Protein Virus molecular docking

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Chusnul Nur Ramadhani. Chatbots in Pharmacy: A Boon or a Bane for Patient Care and Pharmacy Practice?. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2023; 2(3):117-133.

Abstract: Chatbots in pharmacies have gained popularity in recent years, potentially revolutionizing patient care and pharmacist workflow. However, whether chatbots are, a boon or a bane for the pharmacy profession remains. This review article aims to comprehensively analyze the literature on chatbots in phar Show more...
Abstract: Chatbots in pharmacies have gained popularity in recent years, potentially revolutionizing patient care and pharmacist workflow. However, whether chatbots are, a boon or a bane for the pharmacy profession remains. This review article aims to comprehensively analyze the literature on chatbots in pharmacy, including their benefits, limitations, and future directions. Findings suggest that chatbots have the potential to improve medication adherence, provide patient education, and streamline pharmacist workflow. However, there are limitations to their use, such as the need for robust natural language processing algorithms and concerns regarding patient privacy and security. Furthermore, the lack of regulatory oversight and standardized development processes may hinder their widespread adoption. Overall, while chatbots have the potential to improve certain aspects of pharmacy practice, caution must be taken to ensure their accuracy and safety. Moreover, chatbots should be viewed as a tool to support pharmacists in providing high-quality patient care rather than replacing the valuable expertise and human connection pharmacists provide. Further research is needed to explore the full potential of chatbots in pharmacy practice and to address the limitations and concerns highlighted in this review. Show less...

Chatbot Digital healthcare Telepharmacy Virtual consultation Ethical consideration Machine learning

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Mubarak Muhammad Dahiru, AbdulAzeez Mumsiri Abaka, Neksumi Musa. Phytochemical Analysis, In-vitro, and In-silico Antibacterial Activity of Stembark Extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) Guill and Perr. Sciences of Pharmacy. 2023; 2(3):134-147.

Abstract: Bacterial infections subsequently leading to antibiotic resistance has been a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide especially in developing countries with high poverty rate and poor healthcare system. Thus, prompting the prospect in alternative therapy such as medicinal plants. In the Show more...
Abstract: Bacterial infections subsequently leading to antibiotic resistance has been a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide especially in developing countries with high poverty rate and poor healthcare system. Thus, prompting the prospect in alternative therapy such as medicinal plants. In the present study, we evaluated the antibacterial action of stem bark extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus (AL) Guill and Perr. as applied in folkloric medicine for antibacterial purposes. The phytochemicals present in the plant extract were identified and quantified, followed by the determination of the antibacterial effects of the extract against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking study was carried out to ascertain the inhibitory effects of compounds from AL against bacterial enzymes. Alkaloids (7.17% ±0.60), saponins (11.33% ±3.18), and flavonoids (31.01% ±4.04) were detected. A maximum ZI was observed for E. coli compared to S. aureus at the highest extract concentration (100 mg/mL) with amoxicillin having superior ZI at 50 mg/mL concentration. The MIC against E. coli and S. aureus were 12.5 mg/mL and ≤ 6.25 mg/mL respectively while the MBC was>100 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL respectively. Among the identified compounds, IX exhibited the least binding affinity (BA) (7.2 kcal/mol) and inhibition constant (Ki) (5 µM) against UDP-N-acetylglucosamine Enolpyruvyl Transferase (Mur A) compared to all the other targets. AL demonstrated antibacterial activity evidenced by the bacterial growth inhibition, bactericidal potential, and in-silico study revealing high affinity of the bacterial enzymes for the identified compounds, thereby supporting the acclaimed antibacterial use of the plant in folkloric medicine. Show less...

Antibacterial activity Anogeissus leiocarpus In silico In vitro Phytochemical analysis

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